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Classification and Characteristics of Laser Welding

Jun 06, 2022

Laser is another major invention of mankind in the 20th century after atomic energy, computer and semiconductor. Welding is a process and connection method that produces atomic bonding between two workpieces by heating, pressing, or both, with or without filler materials. In this issue, we talk about the method, process and characteristics of laser welding.

1. Classification of laser welding methods

1. According to the different classification of work platforms

According to the different working platforms, it can be divided into: galvanometer welding, collimation and focus welding; if the welding product is high-speed spot welding, it is better to use galvanometer welding. If it is a large-format line segment welding, it is better to use collimated focusing. In terms of optical configuration, the longer the focal length of the collimating mirror, the smaller the spot, and the shorter the focal length of the focusing mirror, the smaller the spot. A certain amount of defocus is usually used in laser welding to avoid material splashing.

2. According to the principle of laser light emission

According to the principle of laser light emission, it can be divided into pulsed laser welding and continuous laser welding: pulsed laser welding is suitable for spot welding and continuous welding; continuous laser is suitable for continuous sealing welding; pulsed laser has higher peak power; The welding efficiency of fiber lasers is faster; when welding the same product, the thermal influence of continuous fiber lasers is slightly greater than that of pulsed lasers.

2. Classification of laser welding process

1. Welding between sheets. Including butt welding, end welding, center penetration fusion welding, center penetration fusion welding and other 4 process methods.

2. Welding of wire to wire. Including wire-to-wire butt welding, cross welding, parallel lap welding, T-welding and other four process methods.

3. Welding of wire and block components. The connection between the metal wire and the block element can be successfully realized by laser welding, and the size of the block element can be arbitrary. During welding, attention should be paid to the geometrical dimensions of the filamentary elements.

4. Welding of different metals. Welding different types of metals addresses weldability and weldability parameter ranges. Laser welding between different materials is only possible with certain material combinations.

5. For the repair welding of block components, the metal welding wire is melted and deposited on the base material by laser, which is generally suitable for repairing products such as molds.

Third, the characteristics of laser welding

1. Laser welding materials

Laser welding can be applied to the welding of titanium, nickel, tin, zinc, copper, aluminum, chromium, niobium, gold, silver and other metals and their alloys, as well as steel, Kovar and other alloys of the same material. It is used for welding of various dissimilar metals such as copper-nickel, nickel-titanium, copper-titanium, titanium-molybdenum, brass-copper, low carbon steel-copper, etc.

2. Laser welding industry

Laser welding can be widely used in mobile communication, electronic components, glasses and clocks, jewelry, hardware products, precision equipment, medical equipment, auto parts and other industries.

3. Advantages of laser welding

3.1 Beautiful welds

3.2 Contactless

3.3 high aspect ratio

3.4 Small thermal influence

3.5 Easy to automate

3.6 Welding of dissimilar metals can be realized

3.7 Very short welding time